Types of Universities:


Central universities are established through an Act in Parliament and are funded by the Union Government. Older universities have been established through individual acts such as Delhi University Act. In 2009, the Central Government established a number of universities together through the Central Universities Act.


State universities are established through an Act in the State Legislature and receive funding from the respective State Government, and sometimes from the Central Government, usually via UGC.


UGC accords a deemed-to-be-a-university status to an institution. Upon receiving an application, the UGC committee forwards its recommendation to the Department of Higher Education, MHRD, which declares a university as deemed-to-be-a-university. Both government and private universities can be deemed universities. Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics and Symbiosis International University are examples of government and private deemed universities, respectively.

Deemed university status allows greater autonomy in operations, syllabus, admission, and fees, than allowed by the above types of universities. Deemed universities are also eligible for funding from the UGC. Jurisdiction of deemed universities is pan-India and worldwide. For example, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani has an offshore campus in Dubai.

Since 2009, no university has been granted deemed university status. Furthermore, the Government of India announced that it is withdrawing deemed university status from 44 institutes in February 2010. The matter is sub judice.


Private universities are established through an Act in State Legislatures. Until now, no private university has been established at the Centre through an Act in Parliament. The Private Universities (Establishment and Regulation) Bill was introduced in Parliament in 1995 to regulate the entry and operation of private universities, but it received strong opposition. Some states had contended that the bill was unconstitutional and challenged its constitutionality since Entry 32 of the State List confers the power to incorporate and regulate universities to the states. Subsequently, the bill was withdrawn by the Central Government in 2007.  Private universities also have to obtain recognition.

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